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Gesundheit

To smoke or not to smoke: The female perspective

Samstag, 26. April 2014 - 17:12

Over the last 50 years, tremendous societal changes in regard to gender role distribution occurred. The change had positive and negative effects on its individuals and also brought new challenges to the field of psychology. One of the challenges is to stay away from cigarettes being female. Here, two explanations are given to understand why there is a link between smoking and gender from the biopsychosocial perspective. Next, behaviours like why some young women start smoking, continue smoking, and stop smoking are analysed.

Gender role differences start during childhood and the polarization between being a boy or a girl seems to be strongest then. One of the explanations why women are more endangered to start and continue to smoke is due to societal changes like emancipation (being cool and manlike), increased gender related advertising, and socio-economic status during childhood. For example, researcher figured that high correlations between childhood socio-economic status (which involves the level of education), role modeling (smoking mother) and the persistence of smoking exist. One other study discovered that to start and to continue to smoke is comorbid to depression. Depression may lead to self-medication to feel better that may lead to substance abuse like smoking to numb the emotions. Another study identified a strong interrelationship between smoking and personality, which seems to be genetic. In sum, from the biopsychosocial perspective to start and to continue smoking may be influenced by all approaches simultaniously because like for any other human behaviour many factors come together and are intertwined.

In conclusion, there is some difference between man and woman in regard to start, to continue or to stop smoking. One certain perspective of the biopsychosocial model may not exclusively explain those differences. On the contrary, it may be concluded that some factors are more prevalent than others, but still influence each other and are intertwined. Another important factor that influences women to smoke comes from the cultural perspectives and explains why the rate of women smokers is higher in high-income countries like the United States or most countries of Europe than in low- and middle income countries like China and Argentina. Besides the socio-economic status of those countries, cultural gender role differences about the acceptance of woman who smoke is another influencing factor. Here, collectivist and traditional environments influence women’s smoking behaviour as well. Thus, be aware of influencing factors and don’t even start.

Beate


Why do you smoke? The Biopsychosocial Explanation

Samstag, 29. September 2012 - 14:20

The Biopsychosocial Model in regard to Smoking

Contemporary psychologists approach research, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders from a holistic point of view by using the biopsychosocial model (Clinical Psychology, 2010). Thus, this artice analysis the importance of the biopsychosocial approach and why it is necessary to use such a perspective in regard to the health related behavior of smoking. Next, the health related behavior smoking is dismantled using the biopsychosocial model and an explanation about the consequences of failing to examine the behavior from all those three perspectives of the biopsychosocial model is given (Schindler, 2012). Hier weiterlesen »


Environmental Psychology: Stress, Stressors, and its Management

Donnerstag, 23. Februar 2012 - 19:37

“Stress is an unavoidable part of life” and is one of the most frequently researched issues within environmental psychology. Thus, this article evaluates the effect of environmental stressors on individuals. Part of the analysis is the definition of the concept of stress and an explanation of the physiology and psychology of stress provides the necessary information to understand the construct of stress. I selected three environmental stressors and evaluate the affect of those stressors on the individual. Those stressors are: temperature, chemical pollution, and noise. At last, the discussion of strategies to manage those three environmental stressors provides some examples to minimize the impact of environmental stressors on humans. Hier weiterlesen »


Habe ich eine Depression?

Sonntag, 19. Juni 2011 - 14:00

Was ist eine Depression?

Eine Depression ist nicht nur das Gefühl von Traurigkeit. Menschen, die unter einer Depression leiden verspühren ein Desinteresse und Vergnügen an den normalen täglichen Aktivitäten, auffallenden Gewichtsverlust oder Gewichtszunahme, Schlaflosigkeit oder ein übertriebenes Schlafbedürfnis, einen Mangel an Energie, die Unfähigkeit sich zu konzentrieren, ein Gefühl der Wertlosigkeit oder ein intensives Schuldbewusstsein und wiederkehrende Gedanken über den Tod oder Suizid. Die Depression ist die am häufigsten vorkommende psychische Störung. Glücklicherweise ist die Depression behandelbar. Eine Psychotherapie kann dazu beitragen, dass Sie wieder gesund werden. Hier weiterlesen »


Positive Psychologie

Samstag, 16. April 2011 - 14:13

Die Kraft der positiven Gedanken und Gefühle

Der Fachbereich „Positive Psychologie“ ist noch relativ jung. Der Begründer Martin Seligman von der University of Pennsylvania untersuchte im letzten Jahrzehnt Phänomene wie Glücklich-sein und Zufriedenheit. Sein Fokus war dabei auf die mentalen Prozesse gerichtet, die „richtig“ waren, anstatt an dem was „falsch“ (krank) war. Damit ist menschliches Verhalten gemeint, dass gesund ist. Die Positive Psychologie erforscht also solche Faktoren, die das Leben lebenswert machen. Dabei werden die positiven Gefühle, positive Charakterstärken von Menschen und positive Gedankengänge exploriert. Die optimale Entwicklung von Menschen ist das Kernstück der Positiven Psychologie. Hier weiterlesen »


 

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Beate Landgraf

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E-Mail. mail@nullpraxis-landgraf.de